The key to Mars, Tianwen-1, a huge breakthrough
Tianwen-1's successful landing on Mars can help establish a frame of reference for studying the Earth, and then point out the direction for the future development of mankind on Earth.
On May 15, my country’s first Mars exploration mission, Tianwen-1, landed in a pre-selected landing zone in the southern Utopia Plain of Mars, leaving China’s 'footprint' on Mars for the first time . my country has also become the third country in the world to successfully land on the surface of Mars after the United States and the Soviet Union, which is of great significance.
The planetary exploration mission is an important mission in my country's space exploration project. On July 23, 2020, the Tianwen-1 probe (including landing platform, orbiter and Mars rover) was launched by the Long March 5 Yaosi carrier rocket at the Wenchang Space Launch Site on the northeast coast of Hainan Island. After nearly 10 months of travel in space, Tianwen-1 finally set foot on Mars.
Successful landing on other planets has a very high threshold
The successful landing of Tianwen-1 on Mars means that my country first The extraterrestrial space technology that enters other planets has reached an unprecedented height, and this is based on the successful landing of the eight planets as a test standard.
From the earth to Mars, it seems simple, but if there is no spacecraft that can fly for a long time and the technology that can successfully land, it is difficult for humans to set foot on other planets. Therefore, 'successful landing' is a very high threshold. Prior to this, only 9 of the 21 Mars landing missions that have been carried out around the world have been successful.
Mars exploration has three target missions of 'orbiting, landing, and patrol'. Among them, 'falling' the fire is the most difficult step, and it is called '9 minutes in darkness.' 'The moment is another blind spot for landing on Mars. Because there is no existing airport on Mars, no standard runway, and no tower for navigation. At the same time, there are no astronauts on the spacecraft for actual control.
The Tianwen No. 1 detector consists of a landing-patrol device (a patrol device) and a surround device. After falling into the fire, the patrol vehicle was divided into two parts: the lander and the patrol vehicle, and the latter was the 'Zhu Rong' rover. The whole process of landing on Mars with the cruiser is abbreviated as EDL in English acronym, that is, the first step is to enter, the second step is to descend, and the third step is to land.
After the patrol device of Tianwen No.1 will bid farewell to the surround device, the EDL process starts. The patrol vehicle needs to use ballistic entry into the Martian atmosphere, high-speed aerodynamic deceleration, parachute deployment deceleration, counter-propulsion deceleration and landing buffer, etc., and finally a soft landing on the surface of Mars.
From passing through the Martian atmosphere to soft landing on the surface of Mars, the speed of the cruiser will slow from 4.8 km/s to close to 0. This deceleration process is about 9 minutes. . Within 9 minutes, the patrol device must execute nearly a thousand instructions in a timely and accurate manner. Moreover, a spacecraft flying at supersonic speeds squeezes the atmosphere to produce ionization, causing a 'black barrier' phenomenon, causing communication interruption, affecting the communication between the spacecraft and the ground, and Beijing's flight control center cannot grasp its landing situation.
Our country made Tianwen-1 successfully land on Mars by injecting navigation information and action instructions for the spacecraft 17 hours in advance, which means that we have mastered the way to enter Mars. The key is a great success in the process of space exploration.
Set foot on Mars to help establish a frame of reference for studying the Earth
Leave a 'footprint' on Mars, to Mars Greetings is only the first step, and there are more important tasks waiting for Tianwen No.1.
This mission mainly fell on the Zhurong Mars body, which is also the process of testing the rover and my country's detection technology. In this process, the Zhurong rover will successively carry out global imaging of the landing site, self-checking and driving away from the landing platform, and conducting inspections.
According to the plan, the Zhurong rover will conduct a 90-day exploration work on Mars. In addition to conducting exploration operations, it will also report back to Earth what it has seen and heard on Mars hundreds of millions of kilometers away, helping people to know and understand Mars.
The importance of 'close contact' with Mars is that Mars can be used as the earth's frame of reference. On the one hand, one can obtain cognition of extraterrestrial space and form a new cosmology and knowledge system; on the other hand, one can obtain resources from Mars that are not available on the earth to enrich and build the earth.
So far, humans have conducted a lot of research on the earth's surface, depth, atmosphere, biosphere, etc., but it is still not thorough. An important reason is the lack of a frame of reference.
In addition to the atmosphere, temperature, water, and day-night transitions, Mars also has mountains, valleys, volcanoes, glaciers, cold and dry regions, etc. If you study these environments on Mars, Let the earth and Mars be a reference for each other and find the similarities and differences between the two will also point out the direction for the future development of mankind on earth.